Mecca had long been a major cult site for the nomadic tribes of Arabia. Religious pilgrims were attracted to a cubical granite house containing idols, called the ________. After Muhammad's conquest of Mecca, this shrine became the focus of Muslim prayers and represents the unity of the faithful.
The first great Umayyad monument, called the _________, was constructed under Abd al-Malik (r. 685–705). It comprised a central-plan structure resembling a Christian martyrium. The borrowing of forms from Persian, Roman, and Byzantine precedents was typical of early Islamic architecture.
a. Temple Mount
c. Dome of the Rock
The Great Mosque of Damascus included a monumental entry portal that opened onto a central nave leading to the mihrab. A screened area to the right of the mihrab, called the _________, imitated the screened areas in palatine churches that separated Byzantine emperors from the congregation.
The Abbasid capital, _________, founded by al-Mutasim (r. 833–842) was built along the banks of the Tigris River. Under al-Mutawakkil (r. 847–861) the capital would boast the largest mosque in the world that included a hypostyle prayer hall that stretched nine columns deep and twenty-four across and a spiral minaret.
This Abbasid vizier built a palace district and mosque in Cairo. His mosque resembles the mosques of Samarra.
a. Abu Bakr
c. Al-Walid I
d. Ahmed Ibn Tulun
The Sui-dynasty architect, Yuwen Kai (555–612), produced the new plan of Chang'an. Conceived on the grid traditions of the __________ diagram, with three gates on the east, south, and west; the city was more than three times the area of ancient Rome.
A layered wooden structure that protected the stupa memorial for a relic or act of the Buddha, this building had its origins in Nepal but became the most distinctive building type of Chinese Buddhism.
With many rows of projecting eaves, the small Wild Goose Pagoda in Chang'an represents this pagoda type.
Leading initiatives to construct the Daminggong Palace in Chang'an, the Qianling imperial necropolis, and numerous Buddhist temples, she became the only woman to rule China using the masculine title of “emperor” and established her own dynasty, the Zhou.
b. Galla Placidia
c. Wu Zetian
In the Todaiji Temple complex in Nara, the central temple, the ________, rose nearly 50 m and was the largest timber-frame building in the world.
c. Daibutsuden (is spelled Daibutseden in Fig 7.2-9)
Which of the following features characterize the urban pattern of Maya cities?
a. Sprawling layouts covering as much as 200 square kilometers with low housing densities (as few as 1,200 people per square km) (Tikal).
b. A monumental cluster of palaces, assembly halls (popol nahs), sweat baths, ball courts, and funerary temples at the urban core.
c. A large plaza on the edge of the monumental district serving as a market.
d. All of the above.
This victorious ruler, or ajaw, built Tikal's first tall pyramids. Temple I rises 48 meters, has nine levels, is accessed by a single flight of stairs that rises on a 70 degree pitch, and is crowned by a roof come that extends ten meters above the upper chamber.
d. Hanab Pakal
The pyramid built by Hanab Pakal in Palenque, a pyramid that housed his own tomb, is known as ______________.
a. Temple I
b. Temple II
c. Temple of the Inscriptions
d. the Pyramid of the Magician
One of the most fancifully decorated courtyard complexes of the Maya can be found in Uxmal. It is called _________. Dedicated in 907 CE, it consisted of sixty cell-like rooms in the four 80 meter long volumes, suggesting the presence of a convent-like structure.
a. Pyramid of the Magician
b. the Nunnery
c. El Castillo
d. Temple of the Warriors
The central core of Chchén Itzá included a cylindrical tower known as the __________, or “snail.” The concentric corbelled vaults supporting its spiral stair were pierced with narrow slots at four positions to align to the planet Venus at different times of year.
c. El Castillo
d. Temple of the Warriors