Founded in 713 BCE, Sargon II's new capital, called __________, included a square perimeter wall of 1,760 by 1,630 m and represented the first effort outside of Egypt (and the vanished Harappans) to design a city on an orthogonal plan.
The imposing palace gates of Sargon II's complex were flanked by immense hybrid creatures consisting of a bull's body, an eagle's wings, and a bearded man's head. These apotropaic figures are known as ________.
With a processional axis, called __________ , meaning “the invisible enemy should not exist,” the designers of New Babylon constructed the first significant project for public space in southwest Asia.
c. Ishtar Gate
In the city of Persepolis, Darius constructed an immense hypostyle hall that included a grid of thirty-six wooden columns and could accommodate 10,000 people. This hall was called a ___________.
Featuring motifs of peoples from across the Persian Empire, the great terrace of all nations in the Persian city of Persepolis was an architectural manifestation of this legal code.
a. Code of Hammurabi
c. Mazda code of justice
Set as an open space of indeterminate contour, this was the prime public space of the Greek polis.
While the tradition of orthogonal planning began with the Egyptians and the Harappans, the Greeks used grid planning to create a coherent system of public and residential zones. Examples of Greek planning can be seen in Paestum, in southern Italy, where the city planners used the _________, a system in which a few broad east-west thoroughfares divided the city site into broad bands and in Miletus, on the Ionian coast of Turkey, where multiple grids, working from the same axes, defined the layout of this port city.
a. per strigas
During the fifth century BCE, Greek architects introduced “refinements,” or visual correctives, to the classical orders that are discernible in temples of this century, especially the Parthenon. They include:
a. Gently arcing the ground plane, or platform, of the temple.
b. Entasis of the temple columns.
c. Narrower intercolumniation at the corners of Doric temples.
d. All of the above.
This temple on the Athenian Acropolis reflected a new interest in hybrid architectural forms in its sequencing of spaces, its multiple levels, and its variety of styles.
d. Temple to Athena Polia
Athens served as a model for the construction of this city on the Ionian coast of Turkey.
At the end of the third century BCE, Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty, converted to Buddhism and constructed several mounded shrines commemorating the life of Buddha. These shrines are called:
Ashoka planted these pillars across his empire—they are inscribed with the benevolent message of dharma and are written in the local languages of his empire from Sanskrit to Greek.
Ashoka's Great Stupa at Sanchi was begun in the second century BCE. Later architectural elaborations to the stupa included circular railings made of log-shaped stones that enclosed a processional path. This path is used for a ritual circumambulation known as the __________.