The cultures that developed around the Aegean Sea located their cities and temples with an extraordinary sympathy with the landscape. Cities were often situated on hilly sites and their architects used large, unrendered stones, or _________, to create structures that looked as if they had been caused by natural processes.
a. ashlar masonry
b. cyclopean masonry
The houses at this site, on the northeast coast of Crete, feature stone drains and flushable toilets, similar to the plumbing achievements of the Harappans in the Indus Valley.
In addition to its robust walls (2.5 m thick) facing its western and northern elevations, the temple at Knossos features entry points that lead to a series of disorienting passageways with numerous right-angle turns before reaching the central court. This aspect of the temple is believed to be another defensive feature of the complex and has lead to the naming of the structure as __________.
a. the temple/palace
b. the pithoi
c. the porch
d. the labyrinth
With cities perched upon steep rock outcroppings and girded with thick stone walls, the cities of Mycenae responded to the necessity of ________.
b. accessibility to trade
c. local infighting
d. religious ceremony
In contrast to their cities, the Mycenaeans built funerary monuments with refined stoneworks. Their burial sites culminated in the Treasury of Atreus that included a conical structure made of ashlar masonry, or tholos, which was approached by a deep causeway, or ______.
The capital city of the Hittites, called _________, was 200 km west of the modern Turkish city of Ankara, and featured hillside fortifications and an entry gate featuring apotropaic lions that anticipates the gateway at Mycenae by a century.
The Egyptian dynasties of the New Kingdom moved the capital to this city, upstream on the Nile river.
Conceived as an earthly paradise for the sun god Amon, the mortuary temple of the female pharaoh Hatshepsut did NOT feature one of the following elements.
a. An imposing pyramid.
b. Three successive terraces abutted with colonnaded porches.
c. 7-ton red granite sphinxes lining the inner path of the first and second terraces.
d. 26 colossal polychrome sculptures of Osiris, God of the Underworld.
Several pharaohs of the New Kingdom commissioned additions to the temple of Amon-Ra at Karnak. The additions created a processional sequence of interior and exterior spaces, which would be separated by imposing, rampart-like thresholds known as __________.
Five years into his reign, the pharaoh Amenhotep IV espoused a new religion based on a single divinity, the solar disk Aten. He changed his name and founded a new capital, halfway between Thebes and Memphis. The city is presently called Tell-el-Amarna, but was originally known as __________.
During his nearly seventy-year reign, Ramesses II commissioned more colossal portraits of himself than any ruler in history. Among these are four colossal seated portraits that mark the entrance to the king's temple, called ________, in the province of Nubia.
c. Deir el-Bahri
d. Abu Simbel
Jerusalem is a city that holds special cosmological meaning for the following religions EXCEPT:
The primary function of the First Temple, constructed during the rule of David and Solomon, was to ___________.
a. provide a tomb for the Jewish kings.
b. accommodate a congregation of at least twelve people to carry out rituals.
c. to house the Ark of the Covenant.
d. to house the Torah.
This ruler rebuilt the Second Temple in a grand style, the vestiges of which can be observed in the huge ashlar blocks at the base of the Temple Mount known as the Western Wall.
The decision to construct the First and Second Temples in Jerusalem was viewed with ambivalence by the Jewish tribes because:
a. Like the Minoans and Hittites, the Jews gathered for ceremonies at outdoor sites, such as at a grove or on a hilltop. They needed only a congregation of twelve people to carry out their rituals.
b. The Mishnah outlined the fundamental contradiction of trying to give architectural substance to the immaterial nature of religious faith.
c. The prophet Jeremiah felt that God could be honored without making great buildings.
d. All of the above.