In one of the most successful participatory architectural projects, the architect Ralph Erskine and his assistant Vernon Gracie built a few dozen test units and analyzed the postoccupancy criticisms before producing their final scheme, the ____________.
a. Stiles and Morse Colleges, Yale University
b. Memé project, the Medical Faculty at Woluwé-St-Lambert
c. Byker Housing Estate, Newcastle-upon-Tyne
d. Malagueira Project, Évora
With its new buildings resembling historic structures, appearing “as ancient in their form, as the trees and hills, and as our faces are,” the Eishin Campus near Tokyo is an example of this architect's espousal of patterns based on vernacular solutions throughout the world.
a. Herman Hertzberger
b. Bernard Rudofsky
c. Charles Moore
d. Christopher Alexander
This group of architects, known as _________, initiated projects including a city for 10 million people to stretch over Tokyo Bay on a net of floating infrastructures.
a. Situationist International
b. Japanese Metabolists
Rafael Moneo's Logroño City Hall, setting an L-shaped façade on a large triangular plaza, represents one of the most eloquent interpretations of this architect's theories of typology.
a. Aldo Rossi
b. Massimo Carmassi
c. Charles Jencks
This 1966 treatise was positioned as a “gentle manifesto” against Modernism, critiquing the movement's “puritanically moral language.”
a. Architecture without Architects
b. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction
c. Learning from Las Vegas
d. Complexity and Contradiction
This building type began to assume the symbolic status of cathedrals in the mid-1970s; cities worldwide began to seek out prominent architects to design them.
In his desire to exploit tension for reducing the mass of structural materials, a solution known as _________, the engineer R. Buckminster Fuller invented the geodesic dome.
d. flux structures
Which of the following is an example of wasteful management of energy in architectural and industrial design?
a. High-entropy heating and cooling systems.
b. Dependence on automobiles.
c. Solar orientation.
d. a and b.
With a segmented torus shape that is set half submerged in the ground, this building in the Middle East stands against the trend of extravagant energy use.
a. King Abdulaziz Airport
b. Bibliotheca Alexandrina
c. Burj Al Arab Hotel, Dubai
d. Burj Khalifa, Dubai
After the acclaim for his Dirty House (2002) and the Idea Store library (2005) in Whitechapel, this Tanzania-born architect was recently awarded the commission for the National African-American Museum in Washington, D.C.
a. Hassan Fathy
b. Pierre Goudiaby Atepa
c. Wango Pierre Sauwadogo
d. David Adjaye
An important precursor to land architecture was a building known as a “solar hemicycle,” lodging the structure into an earthen berm on the north, while leaving it completely glazed on the south.
a. Second Jacobs House, Frank Lloyd Wright
b. Maisons Jaoul, Le Corbusier
c. Summer House at Muuratsalo, Alvar Aalto
d. Oakland Museum, Kevin Roche
The Bell-Lloc winery by this firm is an example of how land architecture frequently becomes inseparable from the landscape.
b. RCR Arquitectes
c. Enric Miralles and Carme Pinós
d. Stephen Holl
This city is a prime example of green urbanism. More than 80% of this city's three million inhabitants use public transportation.
d. Garden City
Which of the following is an energy-efficient building that was also low cost in its construction?
a. Swiss RE insurance tower, London
b. Burton Barr Phoenix Central Library
c. NMB Bank, Bijlmermeer suburb of Amsterdam
d. Boyd Art Centre, in Riversdale, near Cambewarra (Australia)