In the region of Mesopotamia, which technological innovation accompanied the development of architecture?
a. Harnessing of fire
b. Domestication of animals
c. Development of writing
d. Use of flint tools
The architectural form of the ziggurat represented the culmination of a centuries-long process, beginning as early as 5000 BCE, in which builders constructed platforms and temples over preexisting ones. The first true ziggurat is believed to be ________.
a. Eridu's temple to Enki
b. Oval Temple at Khafaje
c. White Temple at Uruk
d. Ningirsu's Temple at Gudea
The architectural form of the palace appeared with the emergence of the institution of kingship in Sumeria. The destroyed palaces of Ebla and Mari, which also included temples, served as models for this Sumerian ruler's residence:
b. Sargon the Great
Which of the following best describes the layout of the residential quarter of Ur?
a. Tightly packed mud-brick houses, each residence built around a central courtyard, amidst a maze-like network of narrow streets.
b. Spacious palaces set amidst orthogonally oriented streets.
c. Paved streets set in a grid pattern surrounding tightly packed residential blocks.
d. Stone residences amidst a maze-like network of narrow streets.
Which of the following characterizes the ziggurat at Ur?
a. A tower consisting of a mud-brick core faced by a 2.5 m skin of baked bricks.
b. Corners of the ziggurat oriented toward the cardinal axes.
c. A triple staircase converging at an entryway pavilion.
d. All of the above.
Some of the earliest royal tomb sites consisted of a loaf-shaped rectangular tumulus known as a ________.
The mastaba at Saqqâra, built under King Djoser (r. 2691–2625 BCE), included a processional hall with a high central colonnade flanked by lower outer walls. This difference in height created a gap in the roofing that allowed light to filter in. This gap is known as a __________ .
b. rampart walls
c. half column
The exposed upper zone of Sneferu's bent pyramid at this site, _________, reveals that the pyramids were constructed in concentric vertical layers.
In contrast to the pyramids of Giza, the mortuary temple of this pharaoh followed a terraced layout in which a series of broad planted courts, colonnades, and interior halls ascended gradually to the mortuary temple, which was cut out of live rock.
This needle-shaped monolith with a pyramidal point represented a materialized ray of sunlight, referring back to the primeval cult of the Ben-ben stone of Heliopolis.
c. lotus capital
The cities of the Harappan culture, as exemplified in the sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, feature the following structures:
a. tombs and mausoleums
d. reservoirs and brick-lined drains
The physical remains of the Harappan cities suggest that the following was NOT a feature of Harappan culture and urbanism:
a. sophisticated drainage systems
b. elaborate bathing structures
c. written language
d. equitable distribution of wealth
Which of the following structures indicate that the Harappan culture had a sophisticated system of water management?
a. ritual bathing facilities
b. thick city walls designed for flood control
c. corbel-vaulted sewers
d. all of the above