This architect's formula of “economy-simplicity-convenience” was the modern alternative to Vitruvius' triad of firmitas-utilitas-venustas (solidity-utility-beauty) and provided the theoretical underpinning for a program of pragmatic, standardized plans.
a. Étienne-Louis Boullée
b. Nicholas-Louis Durand
c. Karl Gotthard Laghans
d. David Gilly
Karl Friedrich Schinkel's Schauspielhaus, the Altes Museum, and the Bauakademie School of Architecture, helped transform this city into what Voltaire described as “Sparta by day and Athens by night.”
This Scottish architect created an original style by synthesizing from a broad range of classical monuments including the Arch of Constantine, the Pantheon, Hadrian's Villa, the Palace of Diocletian at Split, and the Akropolis in Athens.
a. William Chambers
b. Robert Adam
c. Thomas Hamilton
d. John Soane
With a free-standing volume with Ionic temple fronts at both ends, this architect's design for the Bank of Pennsylvania established the temple type as an appropriate form for American banks.
a. Charles Bulfinch
b. Thomas Jefferson
c. Benjamin Henry Latrobe
d. John Soane
With diagonal avenues crisscrossing a basic grid, the urban plan of this capital resembled Baroque capitals such as Berlin and St. Petersburg.
a. Washington D.C.
The resumption of construction on this cathedral in 1832 was part of a broader resistance to the neoclassical projects of the French.
The use of the Neo-Gothic style in this building marked a high point in British nationalism.
a. Cathedral of Saint Chad, Birmingham
b. Church of Saint Giles, Cheadle
c. Houses of Parliament, London
d. St. Paul's Cathedral, London
Revival styles extended well beyond the confines of Europe. The town hall of this city featured a Doric temple front with columns carved in England.
a. Madras (Chenai)
c. Bombay (Mumbai)
With a high masonry dome with ribs sprouting crickets, prominent gargoyles radiating from the base of the dome, and oriol turrets, this building became Bombay's most extravagant Gothic pile.
a. Town Hall
b. Rajabai Tower
c. Ochterlony Monument
d. Victoria Terminus
The Gothic revival in France did not lead to new buildings in historic styles, but rather to intervene on old buildings to make them whole and more convincingly Gothic. This architect restored over 200 structures.
a. John Ruskin
b. Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc
c. Louis-Auguste Boileau
d. Henri Labrouste
The dome on this hall, reconstructed with a glass and iron frame, replaced a wood and glass cupola and covered a diameter as large as the Pantheon in Rome.
a. Halle au Blé
b. Passage du Caire
c. Milan Galleria
d. Les Halles
With cascading stairs that opened to four floors of balconies, this department store began the transition away from the passage, or alley arcade.
a. Passage du Caire
b. Galerie Vivienne
c. Passage St. Hubert, Brussels
d. Au Bon Marché
With pipes heating the water, water wheels to ensure its circulation, and mechanical vents that opened when needed, this structure was the prototype for Joseph Paxton's Crystal Palace.
a. Great Conservatory at Chatsworth
b. Palm House at Bretton Hall
c. Palm House at Kew Gardens
d. Lily House
This was the world's first proper train station—it possessed the fundamental ingredients of the new type, which included a drop-off court, a large hall for the ticket office, a waiting area, a platform for boarding the trains, and a covered train shed.
a. Crown Street Station, Liverpool
b. Euston Station, London
c. King's Cross Station, London
d. St. Pancras Station, London
Eiffel's system of delicate iron webs was first used on this structure before it was employed of the Eiffel Tower.
a. Britannia Bridge
b. Royal Albert Bridge in Saltash
c. Maria Pia Viaduct
d. Forth Bridge