Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the picturesque garden?
a. A return to the mythical state of nature.
b. The use of mechanical processes in an effort to surpass nature.
c. Embracing the symmetry of classicism.
d. Placing buildings and fragments in gardens like quotations from other times and distant cultures.
One of the characteristics of the picturesque aspired to this quality, described by the philosopher Bishop Berkeley as “an agreeable kind of Horror.”
a. the irregular and asymmetrical
b. the exotic
c. the Baroque
d. the sublime
In an effort to incorporate exotic elements into the picturesque landscape, Sir William Temple (1628–1699) coined this expression to indicate his understanding of the Chinese alternative to the Western notion of beauty.
This Gothic fantasy building was conceived by William Beckford and designed by James Wyatt in 1795. It was begun as an addition to a garden folly on the estate of Beckford's father, next to a conventional Palladian villa.
a. Wörlitz gardens
b. Strawberry Hill
c. Fonthill Abbey
d. Downton Castle
With a “Circus” consisting of 33 row houses around a planted circular plaza and John Wood the Younger's Royal Crescent, this city is an example of how picturesque design could shape city planning.
This Venetian monk's use of the adjective “organic” became the analogue for the efficient fit of form to function. His example of the Venetian gondola, employed as a conceit for the organic, proved to be important to later architectural theorists including Henry Greenough, Le Corbusier, and Renzo Piano.
a. Abbé Cordemoy
b. Carlo Lodoli
c. Abbé Marc-Antoine Laugier
d. James Stuart
This architect fervently advocated the superiority of Roman culture. While trained as an architect, he worked mostly as a graphic artist and educator.
a. Nicholas Revett
b. Julien-David Leroy
c. Johann Joachim Winckelmann
d. Giovanni Battista Piranesi
Although trained in the rococo manner, at the Hotel de Ville at Metz, he exercised a Spartan attitude toward the classical orders, approximating the severity of Dutch public architecture.
a. Claude Perrault
b. Jules Hardouin-Mansart
c. Jacques-Francois Blondel
d. Ange-Jacques Gabriel
Claude-Nicolas Ledoux's major public projects came through the Ferme Générale; one of his commissions, the _________, included a theater-like composition with factory sheds, a director's house, and a hemicycle arrangement of workers dwellings and support buildings.
a. Parisian Panthéon
b. École de Chirurgie/School of Surgery
c. Salines de Chaux/royal saltworks
d. the barrières/tollhouses
The architects Charles Percier and Pierre Francois designed the arcaded apartment houses on the Rue de Rivoli for this patron.
a. Madame de Pompadour
b. Marquis de Marigny
c. the Jacobins
d. Napoleon Bonaparte
The rapid social transformations of industrialized England gave rise to two new building types, the factory and the _________.
b. town hall
This structure, produced by Abraham Darby in 1779, became one of the first monuments to the structural capacity of iron.
a. Royal Saltworks
b. Iron Bridge of Coalbrookdale
c. Sucerland Bridge
d. Ellesmere Canal
While the English factory type integrated industrially produced materials and machines with its factory buildings, patronage for industry buildings outside of England, such as the ________________ in Seville, caused them to resemble palaces.
a. iron foundry
b. cigarette factory
c. Boulton & Watt's Soho Manufactory
d. West Mill
The treatises of this prison reformer, including State of Prisons (1777) and An Account of the Principal Lazarettos in Europe (1789) helped draw attention to the deplorable conditions of European prisons during the Enlightenment.
a. John Howard
b. Empress Maria Teresa
c. George Dance the Younger
d. Antonio Contino
Jeremy Bentham's model prison, known as the __________, featured a radial plan with cells opened to the center so that prisoners in solitary confinement could be observed behind an iron grille from a control booth.
a. Bridge of Sighs
b. Silentium of S. Michele, Rome
c. Ackerghem Prison, Ghent