Timur's Great Mosque of Bibi Khanum (early fifteenth century) in Samarkand was centered around a courtyard with each side centered on a deep iwan arch known as a ________.
At the end of the sixteenth century, Shah Abbas I (r. 1587–1629) relocated the Safavid capital from northwestern Iran to the more central city of _______. By 1670 the Persian capital allegedly counted a million residents, larger than Istanbul, Paris, or London.
The city of Isfahan features an immense open space, called the __________, that spread more than triple the area of Saint Mark's Square in Venice and is enclosed by uniform two-story porticoes for shops and businesses.
a. Naqsh-i Jahan
b. New Maydan
d. Pol-e Khaju
The Tomb of Humayun in Mughal India commands a vast _________, a walled paradise garden, 300 x 300 m.
b. hasht bihisht
d. chahar bagh
The tomb of Shah Jahan's wife, called the ________, features an iwan which framed a view of the dome and opened to a conventional chahar bagh garden. The building to the west of the tomb, oriented to Mecca, served as a mosque.
a. Shah Jahan
b. Mumtaz Mahal
c. Taj Mahal
The Escorial features a new architectural style called the __________, which featured clean lines, uncompromised symmetry, and a rational order of the whole.
c. estilo desornamentado
This square in Paris began as a commercial project associated with a silk works factory in 1604.
a. Plaza Mayor
c. Pont Neuf
d. Place Royale
Financed by Prime Minister Mazarin and completed by the architect Louis Le Vau, this building featured a domed church and housed an educational institution that included a riding academy and a public library.
c. Collège des Quatre-Nations
Louis XIV believed that the gardens of his estate at __________ had greater importance than the architecture of the palace. The gardens were arranged around a central axis that continued down a grassy allée to the 2 km long grand canal that disappeared into the western horizon.
c. Les Invalides
d. Place Louis-le-Grand
Bernini's stage-set-like compositions like the Cornaro Chapel anticipated some of Rome's most important public squares, including the _______ which included a set of twin churches that marked the convergence of the trident of streets at Rome's northern entrance.
a. Piazza del Popolo
b. Piazza of Saint Peter's
d. San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
The first great ________, a castle with rustic stone bases and multilevel towers, was constructed by Nobunaga in 1576 at Azuchi, on Lake Biwa, east of the imperial capital of Heian, now called Kyoto.
The protocols of the tea ceremony, or ________, shaped the architecture of state halls in Edo Japan. They required a particular, ascetic environment, encouraging the self-effacing attitude of rustic simplicity.
a. Sen no Rikyu
The Ninomaru Palace in Kyoto, built in 1610, is an example of an Edo palace type that consisted of a staggered series of pavilions on an oblique axis, maximizing exposure to external landscape elements.
With ornate entry gates leading to dozens of buildings that climb a wooded slope, this shrine at Nikko (50 km west of Tokyo) is the antithesis to the serene and minimal Ninomaru Palace.
d. Kora Munehiro
Kobori Enshu (1579–1647) was an Edo architect who gained daimyo status. One of his achievements was the mastery of the __________, or “borrowed landscapes,” in which the foreground comprised a miniaturization of mountains and forests and beyond the walled court one perceived real mountains and forests in correspondence.
d. Katsura Rikyu