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Chapter 1

  1. List the following technological advances in chronological order, earliest to latest.
      a. construction of huts, construction of hearths, fashioning of tools, use of caves as sanctuaries
      b. fashioning of tools, use of caves as sanctuaries, construction of hearths, construction of huts
      c. fashioning of tools, construction of hearths, construction of huts, use of caves as sanctuaries
      d. use of caves as sanctuaries, fashioning of tools, construction of huts, construction of hearths
  2. ____________ began the practice of burning or burying their dead relatives, leaving markers behind.
      a. Lucy (Australopithecus afarensis)
      b. Neanderthals
      c. “Peking Man”
      d. Cro-Magnon peoples (Homo sapiens sapiens)
  3. The _____________cave appears to be the oldest painted cave in Europe.
      a. Altamira (Spain)
      b. Lascaux (France)
      c. Chauvet (France)
      d. Monte Circeo (Italy)
  4. Material evidence of the earliest cities dates to ____________.
      a. 1,500,000 BCE
      b. 500,000 BCE
      c. 30,000–15,000 BCE
      d. 7500 BCE
  5. The urban settlement at _____________ included public spaces such as streets and plazas.
      a. Khirokitia, Cyprus
      b. Jericho, ancient Palestine
      c. Çatalhöyük, Turkey
      d. Göbekli Tepe, Turkey
  6. In ____________, inhabitants build their dwellings by digging into the ground. This strategy of building has been in practice for three millennia.
      a. Cameroon, central Africa
      b. Mongolia, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, and Turkmenistan
      c. the Great Plains of North America
      d. the Loess Plateau, Shaanxi Province, China
  7. The Spanish word _________ refers to earthly substances shaped into unbaked bricks, and builders would frequently cast the earth mixture into rectangular bars.
      a. cob
      b. banco
      c. adobe
      d. pisé
  8. All built structures need to negotiate the force of gravity by harnessing two forces. Where one is the vertical force created by the weight of the building's materials that pushes downward, ________ is the lateral stress created by wind and shear forces that pulls materials in opposite directions.
      a. tension
      b. compression
  9. The method of joining timbers, called _______, is a technique in which a projecting tongue of one piece fits into a corresponding hole of another component. The technique is discernible in the Neolithic stone architecture of Stonehenge in England.
      a. wattle-and-daub
      b. mortise-and-tenon
      c. cruck frame
      d. blockwork
  10. One means of using stone as roof covering was a technique of stacking slabs of stone in which each slab was cantilevered, one stone over the next, from the tops of two opposite walls. The roof was locked into place with a capstone placed at the point of convergence between the cantilevered stones. This type of vaulting, known as ________, is visible in the round stone houses of the southern Italian region of Puglia known as trulli.
      a. sack walls
      b. corbel
      c. post-and-lintel
      d. true arch
  11. The chamber made from two monolithic side stones capped by a monolithic roof stone and then covered with earth is called a __________ . It became a conventional tomb solution for important persons and was employed by prehistoric cultures from England to Korea.
      a. dolmen
      b. megalith
      c. trillthon
      d. orthostat
  12. The French region of Brittany has prehistoric sites, known as menhirs, in which numerous large stones, some as heavy as 350 tons, have been raised and set into the ground. One of the fields, called __________ , includes over 1,000 granite stones set up in parallel lines that extend for 1.5 km.
      a. Chianca Dolmen
      b. Le Menec (Carnac)
      c. Barnenez
      d. Locmariaquer
  13. In the British Isles and northern France during the Neolithic period, tomb designers fashioned tunnels made of linked dolmens that led to an interior vaulted chamber. This complex became an immense burial mound of stone and earth known as a ________. An example of one of these mounds can be found at Newgrange, Ireland.
      a. poché
      b. chevron
      c. henge
      d. cairn
  14. The curving apses of the temples of prehistoric Malta, such as Hagar Qim, appear to have been inspired by a great underground cemetery, or __________, that consisted of over thirty scooped out chambers on three separate levels and served about 7,000 graves.
      a. tumulus
      b. Hypogeum
      c. oracle chamber
      d. cairn
  15. The stone rings of Castlerigg and Stonehenge probably served the following function for the peoples of the prehistoric and Bronze-Age British Isles.
      a. burial of the dead
      b. religious ceremony
      c. orientation to celestial bodies
      d. all of the above
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