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Note

(and correction) regarding extra track on CD that accompanies the text

Please note that the CD that accompanies Music in West Africa contains an added track - track #10 - that is not listed on the CD track list in the text. This track is entitled Whispered song, inanga chuchotée, from Burundi in East Africa, recorded by Joseph Torobeka, collected by Corneilia Fales, August 19, 1986. Please read the information on this recording provided below:

Track #10: Whispered song, inanga chuchotée, from Burundi in East Africa, recorded by Joseph Torobeka, collected by Corneilia Fales, August 19, 1986

The name of the genre derives from the trough zither with eight to twelve strings, inanga, and the French chuchotée, for the performer whispers a text over an instrumental melody. As Cornelia Fales, the ethnomusicologist who has studied this in some detail, tells us, "Even at the first hearing, however, the quality of the whisper is striking, almost haunting. At second or third hearing, a careful listener begins to hear the central paradox of the genre: though by definition a whisper is pitchless, the musician whispering his text, seems to be singing, following the pitch movement of the instrument" (Fales 1998:165). Whispered song, then, allows listeners to hear the illusion of a vocal melody, when there is no pitch movement in the voice. Rather, the ear transfers aspects of pitch from the instrument to the voice in a kind of slight of hand. (Reference: Fales, Cornelia. 1998. "Issues of Timbre: The Inanga Chuchotee." In Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, ed. Ruth M. Stone, 164-207. New York: Garland.

Please also note that because of the inclusion of this additional track, the tracks listed as 10-15 are numbered incorrectly on the CD track list in the text. The correct numbering for the last six tracks on the CD is as follows:

Track #10: Whispered song, inanga chuchotée, from Burundi in East Africa, recorded by Joseph Torobeka, collected by Corneilia Fales, August 19, 1986

Track #11: Women's planting song. Kpelle, Totota. 1976. Women work in a cooperative group to loosen the soil for planting rice. With short handled hoes, they work in a group, singing and advancing forward as they perform call and response songs. Recorded by Ruth M. and Verlon L. Stone.

Track #12. Children's counting song. Kpelle, Totota. 1976. These children count in a call and response pattern. Recorded by Ruth M. and Verlon L. Stone.

Track #13. Entertainment Love Song. Kpelle, Stuart's Farm (near Totota). 1976. Recorded by Ruth M. and Verlon L. Stone.

Track #14: Meni-pele (Chante-Fable), Story-song. Kpelle, Sanoyea. Performed by Peter Giddings and ensemble, 1970. Recorded by Ruth M. and Verlon L. Stone.

Track #15: Drum Pattern: Kee kee zi-kee, master drummer, Kao, Totota, 1976. Recorded by Ruth M. and Verlon L. Stone.

Track #16. Epic performance, Episode 2. Kpelle, Totota, Liberia. Performed by Kulung, 1976. This is the fifth episode from this particular rendition of the Woi-meni-pele, celebrating the deeds and adventures of the superhuman hero of the Kpelle people. Recorded by Ruth M. and Verlon L. Stone.




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