Part 6. Creating a New Nation

The Boisterous Sea of Liberty

Part 6. Creating a New Nation

The Boisterous Sea of Liberty

A Documentary History of America from Discovery through the Civil War
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Paperback 13/01/2000 ISBN13: 9780195116700 ISBN10: 0195116704 Drawing on a gold mine of primary documents--including letters, diary entries, personal narratives, political speeches, broadsides, trial transcripts, and contemporary newspaper articles--The Boisterous Sea of Liberty brings the past to life in a way few histories ever do.
Here is a panoramic look at early American history as captured in the words of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Andrew Jackson, Abraham Lincoln, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Beecher Stowe and many other historical figures, both famous and obscure. In these pieces, the living voices of the past speak to us from opposing viewpoints--from the vantage point of loyalists as well as patriots, slaves as well as masters. The documents collected here provide a fuller understanding of such historical issues as Columbus's dealings with Native Americans, the Stamp Act Crisis, the Declaration of Independence, the Whiskey Rebellion, the Missouri Crisis, the Mexican War, and Harpers Ferry, to name but a few.
Compiled by Pulitzer Prize winning historian David Brion Davis and Steven Mintz, and accompanied by extensive illustrations of original documents, The Boisterous Sea of Liberty brings the reader back in time, to meet the men and women who lived through the momentous events that shaped our nation.

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Part 6. Creating a New Nation 211 1. "The Loyalists of this Country are all preparing to leave it to settle in Nova Scotia"   214
Brooks Watson, March 14, 1783

Native Americans and the American Revolution    215 2. "An expedition must be instantly undertaken into the Indian Country"    215
Thomas Jefferson, April 19, 1780

The Newburgh Conspiracy    217 3. "The behavior of the soldiers in their insult to Congress"    217
Edmund Pendleton, July 21, 1783

Slavery in Postrevolutionary America    218 4. "The case of the oppressed blacks commands our attention"    218
James Pemberton, November 18, 1784

5. "[Nothing] will ever prevent me from doing all in my Power to obtain Restitution of the Negroes taken from the Southern States"    219
John Adams, April 28, 1785

6. "I never possess another slave by purchase"   220
George Washington, September 9, 1786

White Slavery    220 7. "Congress having...invest[ed] us with full Powers entering into a Treaty... with the...Government of Algiers"    220
John Adams and Thomas Jefferson, October 1, 1785

Relations with Britain    223 8. "I have done nothing in the late contest, but what I thought myself... bound to do by...Duty"   223
John Adams, June 2, 1785

9. "That nation hates us"   224
Thomas Jefferson, May 4, 1786

The Critical Period and Shays' Rebellion    226 10. "This high-handed offence...must tend to subvert all law and government"   226
Governor James Bowdoin, September 2, 1786

11. "The proportion of debtors run high in this State"    228
Benjamin Lincoln, December 4, 1786

12. "There are combustibles in every State, which a spark might set fire to"    230
George Washington, December 26, 1786

13. "A proper arrangement of the militia may be regarded as the foundation of the future glory and power of the United States"    231
Henry Knox, A Plan for the General Arrangement of the Militia, 1786

Northwest Ordinance   233 14. "Neither Slavery nor involuntary Servitude in the said territory"   233
Northwest Ordinance, 1787

Creating Republican Governments   234 15. "The...Power of Government of this State is vested in, and must be derived from the People"   234
New Hampshire, A Declaration of Rights, and Plan of Government, 1779

The U.S. Constitution   235 16. "The only step of moment taken by Cong[res]s...has been a recommendation of the proposed meeting...for revising the federal articles"    235
James Madison, February 24, 1787

17. "My opinion of the energetic wants of the federal government are well known"   237
George Washington, February 3, 1787

Debates within the Constitutional Convention    238 18. "A national government ought to be established consisting of a Supreme Legislature, Judiciary, and Executive"   238
Pierce Butler

The Three-fifths Compromise 241 19. "Three-fifths of all other persons"    241
U.S. Constitution, Article I, Section 2

20. "Objections to the Constitution as far as it has advanced"   242
Edmund Randolph, August 30, 1787

Fugitive Slaves and the Constitution    243 21. "Any person bound to service...[who] shall flee"   243
Pierce Butler

A Proslavery Document?   243 22. "Mr. L. Martin allow a prohibition or tax on the importation of slaves"   243
Max Farrand, ed., The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787

Ratification Debates 246 23. "To expect...unanimity in points of so great magnitude...was contrary to all experience"   246
Edmund Pendleton, October 8, 1787

24. "We are at the Eve of a Bankruptcy"    249
William Blount, December 15, 1787

25. "We must insist that the Continental Constitution contain a Bill of Rights"    250
Daniel Adams, December 31, 1787

26. "There never was a time when the public Interest required more attention"   250
John Hancock, ca. 1788

27. "The property, the ability, and the virtue of the State, are almost solely in favor of the constitution"    251
Henry Knox, February 10, 1788

28. "Very extensive Petitions will be laid...against the new Constitution"   251
Walter Stewart, February 20, 1788

29. "Congratulations on the acceptance of the new constitution by the State of Massachusetts"   252
George Washington, March 3, 1788

The New Republic   252 30. "Feelings not unlike those of a culprit...going to the place of his execution"   252
George Washington, April 1, 1789

31. "We are too poor for Monarchy, too wise for despotism, too...selfish & extravagant for Republicanism"    254
Mercy Otis Warren, September 20, 1789

32. "Molasses has shipwrecked New England virtue"    255
George Clymer, ca. 1789

33. "A mortifying consciousness of inferiority"   256
Judith Sargent Stevens Murray, "On the Equality of the Sexes," March and April 1790

34. "The postage of a single letter...amounts almost to a prohibition of communication through the post office"   257
Samuel Osgood, Postmaster's First Report, January 20, 1790

35. "The assumption of the debts of the several now under consideration"   258
Roger Sherman, March 6, 1790

The Birth of Political Parties 259

36. "[The British] view a war as very possible"    260
Thomas Jefferson, August 12, 1790

37. "The expediency of encouraging manufactures in the United States"   261
Alexander Hamilton, "Report on Manufactures," 1791

38. "The contests of European Nations"   264
George Washington, March 25, 1793

The Haitian Revolution 265 39. "St. Domingo has expelled all its whites"   265
Thomas Jefferson, December 1, 1793

40. "Show no mercy with anyone"    266
General Charles Victor Emmanuel LeClerc, August 6, 1802

The Citizen Genet Affair 267 41. "You have probably heard of a great misunderstanding between Mr Genet & us"   267
Thomas Jefferson, November 27, 1796

The Whiskey Rebellion 267 42. "A daring and cruel outrage has been committed"    267
U.S. Congress, July 25, 1794

43. "To resist and prevent the execution of the violence...[is] treason"   269
U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice William Paterson, May 29, 1795

44. "Britain has acted unwisely and unjustly"   270
John Jay, April 9, 1794

45. "[Jay's Treaty] excited much uneasiness in the councils of...[the French] government"   270
James Monroe, January 17, 1795

Washington's Farewell Address 271 46. "The immense value of your national Union"   271
George Washington, September 17, 1796

47. "Great anxiety prevails...[about] the future President"    273
Charles Carroll, December 5, 1796

48. "What is more important than a perfect free trade"    274
Robert Fulton, April 14, 1798

The Quasi-War with France and the XYZ Affair    275 49. "It would be both just and proper to declare the treaty with France to be void"   275
John Jay, June 25, 1798

50. "A profest Democrat...will leave nothing unattempted to overturn the Government of this Country"   276
George Washington, September 30, 1798

51. "Liberty without the worst kind of tyranny"    277
Alexander Addison, January 1799

52. "Folly begets folly"    278
Thomas Jefferson, January 21, 1799

53. "Let [the Jeffersonians] set up a broomstick, and call it a true son of Liberty...and it will command their votes in toto!"   279
George Washington, July 21, 1799

54. "If Jefferson and Burr come with equal votes...the former ought to be preferred"   281
Alexander Hamilton, December 23, 1800

55. "The votes are even between Jefferson & Burr"    282
Elizur Goodrich, January 1, 1801

56. "Hamilton's schemes to...monopolize power to himself"   283
John Adams, December 4, 1805

Jeffersonian Republicanism    285 57. "The fatal errors which have lost to nations the present hope of liberty"   286
Thomas Jefferson, April 15, 1811

The Jeffersonians in Power 287 58. "The President's inauguration past gave great hopes that he would... concil[iate] all parties"    287
Elias Boudinot, April 25, 1801

Repeal of the Judiciary Act of 1801    287

Judicial Review   288

59. "To disable the court from deciding constitutional questions"    288
John Marshall, December 22, 1823

Louisiana, Expansion, and Disunionist Conspiracies   289 60. "None but an armed nation can dispense with a standing army"    289
Thomas Jefferson, February 2, 1803

61. "A Governor is to be placed over us, whom we have not chosen"    290
Pierre Derbigney, 1804

62. "Saw immense herds of buffalo today"   293
Meriwether Lewis, 1805

63. "I am anxious to see the Progress of Burr's Tryal"    294
John Adams, September 1, 1807

Slavery and Race in Jeffersonian America 295 64. "The Abolition of Slavery must be gradual"   295
John Adams, January 24, 1801

65. "[The slaves in question] are not felons"   296
Thomas Jefferson, July 13, 1802

66. "At no period since the slave-trade was prohibited, have all our citizens abstained from...[this] traffic"    297
James Madison, circular letter, April 9, 1803

67. "Every consideration of justice, humanity and safety, forbids that any more Negroes should be brought into your state"    297
William Few, June 30, 1804

68. "Establish an impregnable rampart of Slaveholding power, under the false batteries of democracy"   298
John Quincy Adams, July 17, 1804

The American Eagle, the French Tiger, and the British Shark 299 69. "Seamen who are not British subjects...shall be exempt from impressments"    299
John Marshall, September 20, 1800

70. "Nearly the whole of the American Commerce...will fall under the destructive operation of the [British] order"    300
James Madison, March 29, 1807

71. "War? or No War? That is the question"   301
John Adams, September 1, 1807

The Dambargo of 1807 302 72. "The only honorable expedient for avoiding war"   302
Thomas Jefferson, ca. 1808

73. "Jefferson expired and Madison came to Life last night"    303
John Adams, March 4, 1809

The Road to War 304 74. "Open Mexico to the political influence of the U.S."   305
William Shaler, May 2 and October 5, 1812

The "War Hawks"   305 75. "An immense majority of the people are...averse from a conflict... menacing ruin to themselves"   306
[J.C. Jones], June 11, 1812

76. "The friends of Peace, Commerce and Liberty...are hourly rising"   307
Columbian Centinel, September 5, 1812

77. "Our Northern & Western Armies seemed to be doomed to misfortune and Disgrace"    308
Benjamin Tallmadge, November 29, 1812

78. "The great & immortal Jackson, leads the valiant & daring sons of Tennessee to victory & to glory"   308
Ephraim Hubbard Foster, April 8, 1814

79. "The proceedings at Hartford have excited much anxiety"    310
James Monroe, January 11, 1815

80. "The war...on our part, is entirely defensive"    310
Niles Weekly Register, January 28, 1815

81. "A treaty of peace was received last night"    313
James Monroe, February 18, 1815

82. "The British naval Commanders...have carried away from the United States all the slaves they have taken"   315
John Quincy Adams, August 31, 1815

Clearing the Land of Indians    316 83. "Introduce among the several Indian Nations...the arts of civilization"   316
Henry Dearborn, July 8, 1803

84. "They would have...been amalgamated with us within no distant period of time"   316
Thomas Jefferson, December 6, 1813

85. "The warriors of that village was [sic] with me fighting the battles of our country"   317
Andrew Jackson, May 4, 1818

Missionary Work and Indian Policy 318 86. "I had the pleasure of being introduced to the principal Chief of the Potawatamie Indians"    318
William Dickson, May 28, 1834

87. "We beg the hear us patiently"    319
John Ross, August 14, 1840

88. "Prevent those people from cultivating the soil"    320
Zachary Taylor, March 25, 1838