Storytracking Spencer's 1926 Creation Story

Storytracking

Storytracking Spencer's 1926 Creation Story

Storytracking

Texts, Stories, and Histories in Central Australia
$69.00
Paperback 12/02/1998 ISBN13: 9780195115888 ISBN10: 0195115880 Storytracking is a work of theory and application. It is both a study of history and culture and the academic issues accompanying the interpretation and observation of other peoples. Sam Gill writes about Central Australia, but, more importantly, he writes about the business of trying to live responsibly and decisively in a postmodern world faced with irreconcilable diversity and complexity, with undeniable ambiguity and uncertainty.
Storytracking includes engaging accounts of many of the colorful figures involved in the nineteenth-century development of Central Australia, and it is an argument for a multiperspectival theory of history. It presents descriptions of an important aboriginal culture--the Arrernte--and it critically examines ethnography. It exposes the colonialist underbelly of all modern academic culture study, yet it embraces the situation as one of creative potential outlining an interactivist epistemology with which to negotiate the classical alternatives of objectivism and subjectivism. Gill presents an examination of the emergent academic study of religion focused on two exemplary scholars--Mircea Eliade and Jonathan Smith--offering a play theory of religion as the basis for innovative critical discussions of text, comparison, interpretation, the definition of religion, academic writing style, and the role of "the other."
Based on painstakingly detailed research, Gill exposes disturbing and confounding dimensions of the modern world, particularly academia. Yet, beyond the pessimism that often characterizes postmodernity, he charts an optimistic and creative course framed in the terms of play.

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Storytracking Spencer's 1926 Creation Story

In 1926 Spencer returned to Alice Springs to correct and update the information in Native Tribes (1899) for a revised edition. While there he worked primarily with an Aboriginal named Charlie Cooper from Owen Springs who served as a police tracker. The following is the creation account as it is published in Baldwin Spencer and Francis J. Gillen, The Arunta: A Study of a Stone Age People (London: Macmillan, 1927), vol. I, pp. 355-60 compared with Spencer's field journals. The only complete text is the left column.

S & G, The Arunta

[1]During the performance of the Engwura ceremony at Alice Springs in 1896 it was made abundantly clear that in some way, the Achilpa (wild cat) Knanja, or totem group, was a very important one. [2]The ceremonies during the concluding days were especially associated with it, and a prominent feature on the ceremonial ground, which was maintained intact from start to finish and was evidently intimately associated with the whole performance, was a mound of earth not more than two feet wide but about fifty feet long, running north and south, called Parra. [3]Toward the close of the proceedings theIllpongworra men, returning from the bush, rushed round and round it, and then lay down, resting their heads upon it. [4]All that we could then find out was that it represented the track north and south of the old Achilpa people in the Alchera. [5]At that time, though, fortunately, we were able to see the Engwura in its entirety, and by that means to gain much information in regard to many of the older traditions dealing with the doings of the Alchera ancestors, we did not become acquainted with the full account of what may be regarded as the central tradition of the tribe and purports to explain many things of fundamental importance. [6]This tradition deals with a very special one of the mythical Alchera Beings called Numbakulla, ([Footnote:] [7]This is the equivalent of Ungambikula. [8]"Native Tribes of Central Australia," p. 389. [9]The name Numbakulla is applied to more than one individual, and traditions in regard to them vary in different parts.) a word that means "always existing," "out of nothing."

[10]It is quite possible that there may be other Alchera ancestors who occupy equally prominent positions in the mythology of other sections of what was once the very extensive Arunta tribe, but this particular Numbakulla is the great outstanding central figure in the traditions of the southern, central and northern groups. [11]He arose "out of nothing" at a place called Lamburkna, far away to the south, in the country now occupied by the Dieri tribe. [12]He was the great original Inkata Alchera Numbakulla. [13]From Lamburkna he started out and travelled far away to the north over country now occupied by the Dieri, Urabunna, Wonkgongaru, Luritcha, Arunta and Ilpirra tribes. [14]East and west he wondered to the furthest point of the Macdonnell, Strangways and all the central ranges; northwards his travels extended to a camp later on visited by the Inkata Achilpa kupitcha, beyond what is now called Tennant Creek, on the Wauchope River, between the former and Powell Creek.

[15]Whilst many leaders, locally known as Inkata, Alatunja, Chitchurta or Chantchwa, are associated with Alchera times and myths, Numbakulla, according to this tradition, is the supreme ancestor, overshadowing all others. [16]He gave rise to all the original Kurunas, Churingas, and Knanjas, in fact to everything associated with the Alchera. [17]He himself had no special Knanja or totem, but made and owned them all. [18]During his long travels he created many of the main features of the country and decided upon the location of the central places now associated with the various Knanjas-- Achilpa (wild cat), Erlia (emu), Arura (kangaroo), Udnirringita (witchetty grub), Irriakura (yelka), Emora (opossum), etc.



[19]At every such place he put his foot down, saying, Nana, Knanja Achilpa, Erlia, Arura, etc,; here is wild cat, emu, kangaroo, etc., Knanja. [20]Then he drew and left on some rock or ground surface what is called a Churinga ilpintira--that is, a special design or mark associated with the totem of that locality. [21]Each of these designs now forms the distinctive mark or Ilkinia of the Knanja of that place.

[22]While traversing the country he not only created mountains, rivers, flats and sand-hills, but also brought into existence all kinds of animals and plants. [23]After returning to what is called his Tmara maraknirra (a very great camp), at Lamburkna, he first of all made a cave and storehouse in a rock, in which, later on, to secret the Churinga, of which, as yet, there were none. [24]Storehouses such as this one are scattered all over the country. [25]Every Knanja has a certain number associated with it. [26]The Udnirringita (witchetty grub) people of the central Macdonnell Range country call them Ertnatulunga; (Footnote: [27]Spencer and Gillen, "Native Tribes of Central Australia," p. 133.) at Hermannsburg (Footnote: [28]Strehlow, I Theil I, p. 5.) they are known as Arknanaua; but the name for them common to all Knanjas, and most usually employed, is Pertalachera (Perta or aperta, a rock, and alchera).

[29]At Lamburkna, his great Alchera camp, Numbakulla first of all made the Pertalchera, which he surrounded with gum tree boughs, Pertalchera knalilda (boughs all round), and on the ground inside the cave he painted a Churinga ilpintira belonging to the Achilpa, or wild cat, totem.









[30]On the ground outside he made another Ilpintira, and planted the pole called Kauwa- auwa in the middle of it. [31]A representation of this is now erected on the ceremonial ground at the close of the Engwura. [32]It is made from the trunk of a young gum tree, and is tipped with a large bunch of eagle-hawk feathers, beneath which are tufts of alpita (the white tail-tips of the rabbit- bandicoot) and a long nose- bone, which represents a cross piece of wood that Numbakulla used to help him when he climbed up. [33]He then made a Churinga of the Achilpa Knanja, in which he placed the Kuruna or "spirit" of an Achilpa man which he had previously made. [34]He put the Churinga on the top of the Ilpintira inside the cave. [35]The Kuruna came out of it and gave rise to the first Achilpa man, the great original head of the Achilpa Knanja or totem group, called Inkata Achilpa maraknirra (mara, very; oknirra, great). [36]The natives say Numbakulla, Alchera, erula, Knanikilla, umbairikilla; that is, Numbakulla (in the) Alchera, the ground, Knanikilla (totem place), made (or prepared)--that is, he decided upon the local totem centres (Knanikillas); alpuka, came back (i.e. to Lamburkna); Ilpintira Achilpa umbairikilla, made the Achilpa Churinga; Ilpintira kapatuka, put it on top of the Ilpintira;Kuruna kwanala, the Kuruna inside; Inkata Achilpa maraknirra knailjalugga, the great Achilpa Inkata came out; arinaka, left it there (i.e. he left the Churinga in the Pertalchera on the Ilpintira).

[37]He then made a large number of Kurunas, each associated with a Churinga and each of them representing a different Knanja, Achilpa (wild cat), Erlia (emu), Arura (kangaroo), Unjiamba (Hakea), Irriakura (yelka), Udnirringita, etc. [38]Then he gave these original Churinga to the Inkata Achilpa maraknirra. [39]Each of them was associated with the Kuruna of an individual who afterwards emanated from it and gave rise to the Inkata oknirra or head man of the Knanja or totem group. [40]In addition to this, these original ones, which are called Churinga indulla- irrakura, contained large numbers of the other Churinga and Kuruna placed in them by Numbakulla.

[41]First of all Numbakulla sent the Inkata Achilpa maraknirra out to traverse the country, telling him where he was to deposit the original Churinga indulla-irrakura of the different totems, at spots previously decided upon by himself. [42]These places are the Knanikilla or local centres of the totemic groups of the present day. [43]At one place theInkata maraknirra left an Achilpa Churinga, at another an Erlia, and so on, right through the various Knanjas or totems. [44]The track followed across the country by this original Inkata Achilpa maraknirra is now represented by the long Parra mound on the Engwura ground.

[45]Numbakulla thus created all the original Kuruna and Churinga. [46]He himself was full of Kuruna: as the natives say, Kuruna injaira oknirra, kwanala mberka Numbakulla; there were a very large number of Kuruna, inside the body of Numbakulla; and again Kuruna aradukka (oraradugga) kwanala, Numbakulla; the Kuruna came out from inside Numbakulla. (footnote: [47]The word aradugga or aradukka is generally used with the meaning of coming out of, or being born, as in the phrase, Tmerga ratappa aradugga, the child was born yesterday. [48]The word knailjalugga is more often used when speaking of a Kuruna coming out of, or emanating from, a Churinga; for example, when a man is shown his own Churinga knanja he is told, Nana Churinga indulla-irrakura ingwana; unta knailjalugga; here is your Churinga indulla- irrakura; you came out of it. [49]The Churinga is not regarded as the body, or mberka, of the man: the mberka is supposed to be formed later when the Kuruna, having left the Churinga, enters a woman.)

[50]The first Churinga made by Numbakulla and placed by him on the Churinga ilpintira is called Churinga indulla- irrakura Numbakulla. [51]All of the original Alchera Churinga, made by Numbakulla and subsequently produced from them or made by the various ancestral Inkatas of the different Knanjas or totem groups, are also called Churinga indulla- irrakura. [52]By the splitting of each of these original ones a pair was made. [53]The pairs were at first tied together, and each man and woman had one of them associated with his, or her, Kuruna or spirit, which was originally placed in it by Numbakulla. [54]One Churinga of each pair had an atua or man's spirit, the other an arragutja or woman's. [55]Each Churinga had also an Aritna churinga, or sacred name, associated with it and its Kuruna, and all these names were given, originally, by Numbakulla. [56]Later on, the Kurunas emanated from the Churinga, and gave rise to men and women, each of whom bore, as his or her sacred name, the one given to the Churinga by Numbakulla.

[57]The natives are very definite in regard to the fact that the Churinga is not the changed body (mberga or mberka) of the man or woman: the original Churinga and Kuruna were made by Numbakulla before there were any men or women. [58]It is said also that, Numbakulla Churinga Knanja inkurinika umbairaka; Numbakulla made every kind of Knanaja Churinga.

[59]Numbakulla showed everything to the Inkata Achilpa maraknirra. [60]He taught him how to perform ceremonies connected with the various Knanjas, just as they are carried out at the present day. [61]They are spoken of collectively as Nalungwa, and are now shown to the younger men as they pass through the various grades of initiation, first during the ceremony of circumcision or Lartna, then during that of subincision orAriltakuma, and lastly, during the much more lengthy, important and final Engwura ceremony, after which the younger men are admitted to the status of Urliara, or fully initiated member of the tribe. [62]These ceremonies are concerned especially with the doings of the Alchera ancestors.

[63]Numbakulla, as said, explained everything to theInkata Achilpa maraknirra; taught him how to perform Narlungwa and Mbanbiuma in all the different Knanjas; how to perform Engwura, how to make Churinga, Nurtunjas, Waningas, Churinga ilpintira--in fact everything used in all ceremonies, and gave him final instructions in regard to all matters concerned with the founding of the Knanjas. [64]Before he went away he painted his Kauwa-auwa all over with blood to assist him in climbing, and said to the Inkata maraknirra, Unta Engwura Kauaua kurka atachikka--you use a small Kauaua at the Engwura. [65]He also said, Unta tmara Lamburkna Knanja; Lamburkna is your Knanja camp: Churinga talkara indulla-irrakura ingwana; the Talkara is your Churinga indulla-irrakura; Knanga Achilpa, Achilpa is your Knanja: illa moinja, take care of it: Ambilia-ekura tera ingwana, the two Ambilia-ekura are yours; Ambilia-ekura kuruna injaira oknirra, a very large number of Kuruna are in the Ambilia-ekura; unta oruka Mbanbiuma, you by and by (make) Mbanbiuma. [66]Finally he said to the Inkata Achilpa maraknirra, unta Churinga, niinda, Pertalchera--your Churinga, one, (is in the) Pertalchera: illina allpurijigga tmara nukwa eritjikka, we two will go up to see my camp. [67]Telling the Inkata to follow him, he began to climb up the tall Kauwa-auwa, and reached the crosspiece, but the blood had made it too slippery for the Inkata, who slid down, so Numbakulla went on alone, drew up the pole after him and was never seen again.

Field Journal 6-11-26























































[3]Inkata alcheringa called Numbakula (self jumped up, self originating) arose at






























[3]Inkata alcheringa called Numbakula (self jumped up, self originating)

































[4]He had no oknaninja [supposedly knanja, i.e., totem?] himself but made all made them [6]First of all he made one churinga & placed it on top of the churinga ilpintara [i.e. the ground drawing] and from the churinga the first Achilpa man arose. [7]Then the Numbakula made a large number of Churinga of different totems, Okira (kangaroo), Arua (wallaby), Erlia (emu), Irriakura [bulb of cyprus rotundus], Unjiamba [hakea tree], Udnirringita [witchetty grub].





[5]He made a churinga ilpintira (drawing) [Ilpintirra, totem emblem drawn on rock or ground]


















on the ground in a cave Podalchura [i.e., pertalachera, storehouse of the tjurunga usually a small cave] & put boughs all round [erased word] knälaida (boughs round).






















[5]He made a churinga ilpintira (drawing) [Ilpintirra, totem emblem drawn on rock or ground] on the ground in a cave Podalchura [i.e., pertalachera, storehouse of the tjurunga usually a small cave] & put boughs all round [erased word] knälaida (boughs round).

[6]First of all he made one churinga & placed it on top of the churinga ilpintara [i.e. the ground drawing] and from the churinga the first Achilpa man arose.

[11]He had a very big nurtunja called kauwa-auwa which he erected in the middle of a second Ilpintira that he made outside the pertalchera.











[15](The nose bone on the Kauaua used at the Engwura represented a cross piece of wood that the numbakula used to help him in climbing).

[6]First of all he made one churinga & placed it on top of the churinga ilpintara [i.e. the ground drawing] and from the churinga the first Achilpa man arose.


































[7]Then the Numbakula made a large number of Churinga of different totems, Okira (kangaroo), Arua (wallaby), Erlia (emu), Irriakura [bulb of cyprus rotundus], Unjiamba [hakea tree], Udnirringita [witchetty grub].

[6]First of all he made one churinga & placed it on top of the churinga ilpintara [i.e. the ground drawing] and from the churinga the first Achilpa man arose.

























[7]Then the Numbakula made a large number of Churinga of different totems, Okira (kangaroo), Arua (wallaby), Erlia (emu), Irriakura [bulb of cyprus rotundus], Unjiamba [hakea tree], Udnirringita [witchetty grub].









































































































[7]Then the Numbakula made a large number of Churinga of different totems,




[9]Then showed him how to make umbanbiuma[?]. [10]He showed him how to make everything--churinga, Nurtunjas, Waningas [totem emblems], everything that a native has.
























[9]Then showed him how to make umbanbiuma[?]. [10]He showed him how to make everything--churinga, Nurtunjas, Waningas [totem emblems], everything that a native has.







[13]Before this he had sprinkled blood all over the Kauaua so as to help him climb up.




































[14]Then he told the Achilpa man to follow him & climbed up but the Achilpa man slipped down so the Numbakula drew the Kauaua up afterhim & was never seen again.

Field Journal 6-23-26























































(1) Numbakula originated (self existing) at Lamburkna,

























(1) Numbakula originated (self existing) at Lamburkna,







(5) Numbakula gave instructions to Mara'knirra who walked all over the country right from the south in Dieri country to the far north beyond Tennants Creek. Settled on all spots for oknaninjas--left illpintira [ground painting] & "marks" of oknampas [?] everywhere & then came back to Numbakula at Lamburkna.












































(5) . . . Settled on all spots for oknaninjas--left illpintira [ground painting] & "marks" of oknampas [?] everywhere &
















then came back to Numbakula at Lamburkna. (4) Numbakula made churinga (ind la-irrakura--all stone ones - talkara) split them in pairs with Kuruna inside each of them & put them all in the Purtaalchera.



































































(2) Num. made an achilpachuringa with which was assoicated a Kuruna which he had made before the churinga. The kuruna came out of the latter (Kuruna indula-irrakura (k)nailja-l gge-kuruna, i.e., came out of). Then Numbakullamade Inkata Achilpa mara'knirra from the kuruna.




























(3) Numbakula made mob of kuruna








(7) Inkata Mara'knirra went to pertalchera & found mob of churinga with kuruna-





(2) Num. made an achilpachuringa with which was assoicated a Kuruna which he had made before the churinga. The kuruna came out of the latter (Kuruna indula-irrakura (k)nailja-l gge-kuruna, i.e., came out of). Then Numbakullamade Inkata Achilpa mara'knirra from the kuruna. (5) Numbakula gave instructions to Mara'knirra who walked all over the country right from the south in Dieri country to the far north beyond Tennants Creek. Settled on all spots for oknaninjas--left illpintira [ground painting] & "marks" of oknampas [?] everywhere & then came back to Numbakula at Lamburkna. (8) Mara'knirra "threw" churinga out to various places as he walked across the country--all totems--each churinga with a special kuruna associated with it- -Achilpa, udnirringita [witchetty grub], erlia [emu], etc. He threw out 8 Achilpa churinga, four to east of his track & four to west. One of these to Wairdija.




























































(4) Numbakula made churinga (ind la-irrakura--all stone ones - talkara) split them in pairs with Kuruna inside each of them & put them all in the Purtaalchera.

































(4) Numbakula made churinga (ind la-irrakura--all stone ones - talkara) split them in pairs with Kuruna inside each of them & put them all in the Purtaalchera. (6) Numbakula told Inkata mara'knirra everything . . .






























(6) Numbakula told Inkata mara'knirra everything--how to make churinga, engwura, umbanbiama [Mbanbiuma=increase rites?]. Then he climbed up his kauwa- auwa telling Mara'knirra to follow him but latter slippeddown and Num. drew kauwa- auwa up after him.


































When Numbakulla was about to go up his kauwa auwa he said to Inkata mara'knirra-illina [under this word is written the words "we two"] allpurijigga [under this word is written the words "go up"] tmara [under which is written "camp"] Eritjikka [under it is written "see"]. [23]Then he went up the kauwa-auwa & Mara'knirra found all the other Churinga in the purtalchera--The kuruna & their churinga had been made by Numbakulla.

Comments (by line number in the published text that appears in the left column):

18 In the published account Spencer rejects the ritual setting described in his journal account in which the figure Numbakulla creates tjurunga from which arise ancestors of these groups. In the published version Spencer makes Numbakulla a traveler forming land sights important to some of the totem groups.

19 Numbakulla the traveling creator is distinctly different from Spencer's ritual object maker in his journal accounts. In the published version, Spencer attributes Numbakulla as creating by an act of foot stamping and naming.

20 In the June 11 journal account Numbakulla does not travel but at once creates a ground painting. Spencer's effect is to distribute the ritual action to many apparently repeated actions at various totem location.

23 Remembering that in the July 23 account it is the totem ancestors who are traveling Spencer has Numbakulla return to Lamburkna.

29 Spencer now goes back to sentences 5 and 6 in the June 11 account to present them yet again from a different perspective. Note that this sentence as it is presented loses the principal function of the journal entry which explains how the first Tjilpa ancestor arose.

32 Spencer gets ahead here and anticipates sentence 67. Note that in the journal Spencer reflects his informant's response to his inquiring about the piece that "looked like a bone." In the field notes this is on the overleaf.

33 Spencer returns yet again to the June 11 journal sentence 6 but here he interprets the account in terms of the added information regarding karunas in the July 23 account, especially sentences 2 to 4. The June 11 account has no mention of karunas. Spencer conflates June 11 sentence 6 with July 23 sentence 2.

50 A repeat of sentence 40, though this renders the July 23 account differently.

59 Spencer clearly draws upon both journal accounts.

64 No mention of this pole climbing in the July 23 account. Nothing in either journal account regarding the use of a small pole in Engwura. Spencer seems interested in making connections between myth and ritual.

67 Spencer draws on the June 11 account perhaps even for the July 23 account. No journal support for blood making the pole slippery and in the July 23 account there is no mention of the Inkata failing to climb the pole though Spencer renders some Aboriginal terms as an invitation for the two to go up together though it is immediately contradicted.

General comments: Spencer constructs the account of Chapter XIII "Early Wanderings" by a tiring repetition of contradictory elements drawn from two journal accounts: one written on June 11 (from which he uses nearly everything) and July 23 (from which he draws principally on sentences 1 through 7 and 20 through 23). Notably the middle part of the July 23 account is the basis for much of the "Middle Wanderings" that Spencer describes in The Arunta, pp. 260-371.

The motivation for the choices Spencer has made in his selections and renderings of the 1926 journals appears to be his desire to document the early period--the era of creation. Nearly every editorial choice eliminates elements that would have placed these materials in a period other than his "early wanderings." Spencer wants a creation story and he makes one.

The following sections compares Spencer's field notes and journals located at the Museum in Victoria, Melbourne. Both accounts are complete and can be read down either column.

Spencer's June 11 Field Notes and Journal Compared

Spencer's Field Notes for Numbakulla Story
Notebook: Alice Springs, 1926, pp. 18-21
June 11, 1926


[page 18]

[1]Numbukala no oknamija

[2] kauaua at Engwura

[3] belong to Numbukala

[4]Nikata [i.e., Inkata] Alchurinya Numbuka jump up self

[5]Inkata Alchurinya jump up self

[6]& made ilpuitira achilpa along -- ground in

[7]cave (pertalachera knälilda=boughs

[8]round [therefore] this is Inkata alchurega

[9](o)knaninja (=ok of numbukala)

[10]Numbukala made one churinya. Put

[11]this on top of Achilpa which he made opor?ira Along

[12]of churinya Achilpa man jumped up.

[13] Numbukula been go away

[14] far away

[15] hikat[?]

[16] made plenty of churinga of all

[17]kinds. Str him narknija[?] &



[18]how to make umbarablemma & anything

[19]nin ya & waninja churinya & anything

[20] He had big Kanana (special

[21] nurturinya which he erected in the middle

[22]of a second ilpintira outside the podalchura

[23]finally he said man got you

[page 19]

[24]Numbukala made all kinds churinya &

[25]gave them to the Achilpa man with kuruna

[26]telling him how to make & use them etc.

[27]The original Achilpa threw out Churinya

[28]at various spots some were Achilpa

[29]others Udnirringita, etc. from each of these

[30]arose first of all one man & one woman

[31]later on kuruna eratappa there

[32]went into varius tree Etc & then with

[33]woman in form of Eratappa & gave use

[34]to different groups of people. On

[35]this is like an original account.

[36] Jumped up in a cave

[37]podalchura knälida-past made em

[38]ilpintira on ground. Then put em

[39] around side the

[40]cave made churimya on marbuya

[41]unbanbienma up & pulled kanana

[42]up after him. No more see him.

[page 20]

[43]What looked like a bone on the Kanana

[44]was a piece to help njumluka where

[45]him get clay [likely "clear"] top

[page 21]

[46]Inkata Ngumbakula

[47] Im [i.e., "him"] put his new blood on Kanana

[48]that he went slip. Told Achilpa

[49]you come after me but he couldn't get

[50]up to him & slid down & Ngumbúkule

[51]pulled the kanana up. No trace left of

[52]him.

[53] Ni namlikula in w. this

[54] is Urapwya [?] country. Muryaguiniaguinia

[55]made 2 inaperta into human beings.

[56]Two muryaguiniaguinia been on top of hill &

[57]saw him. Felt sorry. Cut him with Lelira[?]

Spencer: Journal for Numbakulla Story
Notebook: Melbourne 1923, p. 27
June 11, 1926

[1]Achilpa Tradition. [2]Origin of totemic groups, etc. (see later) [3]Inkata al cheringa called Numbakula (self jumped up, self originating) arose at [4]He had no oknaninja [supposedly knanja, i.e., totem?] himself but made all made them






[5]He made a churinga ilpintira (drawing) [Ilpintirra, totem emblem drawn on rock or ground] on the ground in a cave Podalchura [i.e., pertalachera, storehouse of the tjurunga usually a small cave] & put boughs all round [erased word] knälaida (boughs round).


[6]First of all he made one churinga & placed it on top of the churinga ilpintara [i.e. the ground drawing] and from the churinga the first Achilpa man arose.










[7]Then the Numbakula made a large number of Churinga of different totems, Okira (kangaroo), Arua (wallaby), Erlia (emu), Irriakura [bulb of cyprus rotundus], Unjiamba [hakea tree], Udnirringita [witchetty grub]. [8]He showed the Achilpa man his Narlungwa (totemic ceremonies). [9]Then showed him how to make umbanbiuma[?]. [10]He showed him how to make everything--churinga, Nurtunjas, Waningas [totem emblems], everything that a native has. [11]He had a very big nurtunja called kauwa- auwa which he erected in the middle of a second Ilpintira that he made outside the pertalchera.

[12]Finally he said to the Achilpa man you have got everything; you can make churinga & narlunga & Unbanbiuma[?] & everything.












































[13]and [14] below. [15](The nose bone on the Kauaua used at the Engwura represented a cross piece of wood that the numbakula used to help him in climbing).





[13]Before this he had sprinkled blood all over the Kauaua soas to help him climb up. [14]Then he told the Achilpa man to follow him & climbed up but the Achilpa man slipped down so the Numbakula drew the Kauaua up afterhim & was never seen again.

Spencer's July 23 Field Notes and Journal Compared

Baldwin Spencer's field notes
Alice Springs July 23, 1926, page 91.

Numbakulla

Maraoknirra [or Maraknirra (mara=great oknirra=very)]

(1) Kuruna (2) Churinga

Kuruna is churinga [in margin "Kuruna indulaa-irraka/(k)nailia-lugge"]

then Maraknirra jump up.


(3) Then he made kununa [undecipherable word possibly "with"]

(4) then made churinga one along each

but in Purta-alchera [Pertalchera, perta or aperta=a rock, alchera]

(5) Nam [Numbakulla?] walked - settled on places it








(6) after [indicipherable word] come back Num [Numbakulla] go wh Kauaua







(7) Marik sur Churinga & Waairidiji


(8) Num churinga had kuruna of Achilpa okchima[?]








(9) Oknirra came out at Wairidja


(10) Oknirra goes back to Lamburkna









(11) Marrkna gave him ambiliaekura & everything. Tell him everything.








(12) Oknirra goes back to Wairididja




(13) Oknirra made (a)kukitja. Took 2 fellas Talk aru out of one amiliaekura one kurun = kurpitja. Other jump up illapuma.







(14) Kup. Illab walk camp!

Then Kup take churinga

want along Illapunga

Tmalpunga got

Illpongw out of Tllapurinja,

(15) Walk 2nd camp. get em 2nd Tmallpunga & Lunjarinia & not illpongw. all not of Illapurinja

Baldwin Spencer's journal entry
Alice Springs July 23,1926, pp. 5-6

(1) Numbakula originated (self existing) at Lamburkna,



(2) Num. made an achilpa churinga with which was assoicated a Kuruna which he had made before the churinga. The kuruna came out of the latter (Kuruna indula-irrakura (k)nailja-lugge-kuruna, i.e., came out of). Then Numbakulla made Inkata Achilpa mara'knirra from the kuruna.

(3) Numbakula made mob of kuruna


(4) Numbakula made churinga (indula-irrakura--all stone ones -talkara) split them in pairs with Kuruna inside each of them & put them all in the Purtaalchera.

(5) Numbakula gave instructions to Mara'knirra who walked all over the country right from the south in Dieri country to the far north beyond Tennants Creek. Settled on all spots for oknaninjas--left illpintira [ground painting] & "marks" of oknampas [?] everywhere & then came back to Numbakula at Lamburkna.

(6) Numbakula told Inkata mara'knirra everything-- how to make churinga, engwura, umbanbiama [Mbanbiuma=increase rites?]. Then he climbed up his kauwa-auwa telling Mara'knirra to follow him but latter slipped down and Num. drew kauwa-auwa up after him.

(7) Inkata Mara'knirra went to pertalchera & found mob of churinga with kuruna-

(8) Mara'knirra "threw" churinga out to various places as he walked across the country--all totems-- each churinga with a special kuruna associated with it--Achilpa, udnirringita [witchetty grub], erlia [emu], etc. He threw out 8 Achilpa churinga, four to east of his track & four to west. One of these to Wairdija.

(9) At Wairidija Inkata Achilpa knirra came out of the churinga

(10) Inkata (o)knirra went back to Lamburkna and Mara'knirra gave him two ambilia-ekura [pouches, but in NT this is ritual object used in frog totem ceremony made of two stone churingas wrapped together, see NT 364-8] (these belong to Achilpa knaninja. Then Inkata (o)knirra returned to Wairidija with them. Mara'knirra told him everything.

(11) Inkata'knirra took pair of churinga (tjua- ninga[?]) out of one of the ambilia-ekura & out of them arose (a) Inkata Achilpa kupitcha [=small or little] - (b) Illapurinja [a term applied to (1) the first woman made by the Inkata Achilpa, (2) a woman who goes out as a Kurdaitcha, an evil being. The word means "the changed one."]

(12) Inkata oknirra told & showed everything to Inkata kupitcha & gave him the two amilia-ekura.

(13) Inkata kupitcha took the two ambilia-ekura & went to camp (see Book i, B script, p. 85) with Illapurinja ["the changed one"]. First one kuruna went into Illapurinja & Imalpunga (1st) came out. Then a large number of kuruna went inside her & came out as Illpongwura [illpongwora=term applied to men during close of Engwura ceremony, meaning "men not greased"].

(14) Walked on to Camp 2 (supp 78-85). The kuruna of the second Imalpunga & Lunjarinia[?] went into Illapurinja & were born and then many more men--all out of Illapurinja. Imalpunga & Lunjarinia were not mates.

(15) On to camp 3--the first Ambilia-ekura camp (for details of this & after see earlier) The Imalpunga men had no lubras. [16]The natives say Talkara indula- irrakura oknaninja Numbakula umbairaka. [there are no field notes to support the following journal passage]

[17]Numbakulla said to Inkata mara'knirra

-- unta tmara Lamburkna oknaninja churinga ingwara talkara: oknaninja Achilpa indula irrakura [Spencer marked a rearrangement of these words none of which I am certain is correct, this also ends the page, though the entry continues on the next page numbered 7 with the heading "July 22, 1926"] moinja illa: ambilia-ekura tera ingwana ambilia- ekura kuruna injarra ?knirra [between words moinja on one line and injarra on another line is inserted the words "take care of it"] : unta oruka unbunbiuma: Tmara (O)knirraka umbunbiuma. [under word oruka is written a couple of indecipherable words plus "(later on"] [18]Then Mara'knirra went out & settled on all oknaninja places. [between words umbunbiuma on one line and "on all ..." on next line is inserted words "(make) umbanbiuma".]

[19]When Numbakulla was about to go up his kauwa auwa he said to Inkata mara'knirra-illina [under this word is written the words "we two"] allpurijigga [under this word is written the words "go up"] tmara [under which is written "camp"] Eritjikka [under it is written "see"]. [20]The original Achilpa churinga made by Numbakulla was left by him in the purtalchera at Lamburkna.

[21]At first there were only kuruna in the purtalchera at Lamburkna. [22]He said to Inkata Mara'knirra unta [under which is written "your"] churinga [under which is writtin "churinga"] ni-inda [under which is written "one is in"] purtaalchera [under this word are ditto marks]. [23]Then he went up the kauwa- auwa & Mara'knirra found all the other Churinga in the purtalchera--The kuruna & their churinga had been made by Numbakulla. [this is followed by several spaces then another topic of discussion].