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Slater & Lewis: Introduction to Infant Development

Key concepts

Inevitably, and perhaps unlike other chapters, we have to introduce a lot of new terminology in chapter 10. To help the reader, here is a list of key concepts which will help you to navigate through the chapter more easily.

Categorical induction:
Using known words to guess how new ones might be extended to a whole category.

Categorical perception:
Hearing some sound differences as identical if they come from the same phonemic category.

Constraints:
Inferences about how new words might work.

Grammar:
Knowledge of the rules of combining words (syntax) and creating word forms (morphology).

High amplitude sucking procedure:
Using sucking as a way to test for infants’ noticing sound differences.

Intermodal preferential looking procedure:
Using looking as a way to test infants knowing the meaning of a word.

Lexical Contrast/Mutual Exclusivity:
Assuming one word per object. This lead to knowledge that a new word must refer to an object that does not yet have a name.

Morphology:
Knowledge of different forms of words (eg. word endings).

Multimodal perception:
Linking across different perceptual systems (e.g. linking sight with sound.

Perceptual assimilation model:
Believes learning contrast is dependent on how sounds are categorized by the native language.

Perceptual magnet effect:
Tendency to hear sounds categorically.

Phonemic contrasts:
The subtle sound difference between similar words.

Phonology:
Study of the speech sounds and relationships among speech sounds that form the smallest units of language.

Pragmatics:
Study of language use in practice

Prosody:
The melody and rhythms of language.

Reduplicative babbling:
Repeating the same sounds over and over.

Referential intent:
Ability to induce what a person is labeling through eye gaze and other social acts.

Segmentation:
Finding words or other important units in the fluent stream of speech.

Semantics:
Study of word meanings and their use.

Statistical learning:
Using the regularities in speech to make inferences about possible words.

Syntactic bootstrapping:
Using syntax to figure out the meaning of new words.

Syntax:
Knowledge of how words and phrases can be combined.

Transitional probabilities:
The likelihood that one syllable will follow another.

Variegated babbling:
Vocal productions characterized by strings of varying syllables (e.g., ‘bagoo’).

"Whole Object" bias:
Bias to attach labels to wholes over parts or actions.